(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar

The New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar Aegotheles savesi is a large owlet-nightjar (a kind of bird related to swifts and goatsuckers) with vermiculated grey-brown and black plumage. It has a long, slightly rounded tail, short, rounded wings, and long, stout legs. Its voice is unknown but similar birds make churring and whistling sounds. It is much larger than the related Australian Owlet-nightjar.

This bird is endemic to New Caledonia’s Melaleuca savanna and humid forests. Other members of its genus are highly territorial and nest in holes in trees. These birds also forage by sitting on a branch and attacking small animals. It is unknown if these habits apply to the New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar, but this species is larger and has longer legs than the others, so it may be more terrestrial.

The type specimen was collected from a bird that flew into a bedroom in the village of Tonghoué. This large nightjar is known from two specimens taken in 1880 and 1915 and a couple of sightings. The most recent is from the 1998 expedition which saw a large nightjar foraging for insects at dusk in Rivière Ni Valley. This exciting report, plus noises similar to the genus being heard in 1996 and 1998, lead many to believe that this species still survives in small numbers.

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(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)Magdalena Tinamou

The Magdalena Tinamou (Crypturellus (erythropus) saltuarius) is a member of one of the most ancient bird families, the tinamous. It is endemic to Colombia, and has been considered possibly extinct, as there are no confirmed records since the type specimen was collected in 1943. The most recent review consider it likely that it is extant, as locals have reported sightings in the 1970s and 1980s, an individual was apparently held in captivity until the early 1990s, and a few patches of forest remain in its presumed range.

It is sometimes treated as a distinct species, and sometimes as a subspecies of the Red-legged Tinamou. The SACC rejected a proposal to elevate it to species status, arguing that the presently available data fail to support the split. BirdLife International have followed this treatment; hence the Magdalena Tinamou was dropped from the 2008 IUCN Red List.

(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)Junin Flightless Grebe

The Junin Flightless Grebe Podiceps taczanowskii, also known as the Puna Grebe and the Junín Grebe, is a grebe found only on Lake Junin in the highlands of Junin, west-central Peru. The current population is estimated at less than 250.

The scientific name commemorates the Polish zoologist Władysław Taczanowski, author of Ornithology of Peru (1884-86).

Another highly endangered species, the Junin Rail, is restricted to the same lake.

(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)Jamaican Pauraque

The Jamaican Pauraque, Jamaican Poorwill, or Jamaican Least-pauraqué (Siphonorhis americana or americanus) is a species of nightjar in the Caprimulgidae family. It is endemic to Jamaica. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland. It is critically endangered or quite possibly even already extinct due to introduced predators

(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)Ivory-billed Woodpecker

The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), a very large member of the woodpecker family, Picidae, is officially listed as an endangered species, but by the end of the 20th century had widely been considered extinct.

Reports of at least one male bird in Arkansas in 2004 and 2005 were suggested in April 2005 by a team led by the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (Fitzpatrick et al., 2005). If confirmed, this would make the Ivory-billed Woodpecker a lazarus species, a species that is rediscovered alive after being considered extinct for some time.

In June 2006, a $10,000 reward was offered for information leading to the discovery of an Ivory-billed Woodpecker nest, roost or feeding site.

In late September 2006, a team of ornithologists from Auburn University and the University of Windsor published a paper detailing suggestive evidence for the existence of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers along the Choctawhatchee River in northwest Florida (Hill et al., 2006).

Despite the initial reports from both Arkansas or Florida, conclusive evidence for the existence of a population of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers, in the form of unambiguous photographs/videos, specimens, or DNA from feathers, has not been forthcoming. Nonetheless, land acquisition and restoration efforts are currently underway to protect the possible survival of this woodpecker.

(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)Christmas Island Frigatebird

The Christmas Island Frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi) is a frigatebird endemic to the Christmas Islands in the Indian Ocean. Like other frigatebirds, this species does not walk or swim, but is a very aerial bird which obtains its food by picking up live prey items from beaches or the water surface, and the aerial piracy of other birds.

It is estimated that the population of this species will decline by 80 percent in the next 30 years due to predation of the young by the introduced yellow crazy ants species (Anoplolepis gracilipes), which have devastated the wildlife of the island, and have also killed 10–20 million Christmas Island red crabs.

The adult male of this species is easily identified, since it is all black except for a white belly patch. Other plumages resemble those of the smaller Lesser Frigatebird, but have whiter bellies and longer white underwing spurs.

The binomial of this bird commemorates the British palaeontologist Charles William Andrews.

(CRITICALLY ENDANGERED)Chatham Island Shag

The Chatham Island Shag (Phalacrocorax onslowi) is a species of bird in the Phalacrocoracidae family. It is endemic to New Zealand.

Its natural habitats are open seas and rocky shores. It is threatened by habitat loss, and considered critically endangered by the IUCN.